Various microorganisms are responsible for the growth and development of plants. To a large extent, this is the case with various bacteria which, by utilizing carbon from plant residues in the soil, support the processes of proper plant nutrition, stimulate growth, enable proper seed germination and development of young seedlings, and hinder the colonization of roots by various pathogenic organisms. The activity of bacteria is, for example, an important element influencing the availability of phosphorus, the lack of which is often a key problem in maize production.  However, their role is much broader, as they also improve air-water conditions, improve the tuberous structure of the soil and even increase water retention. The increase in the intensification of agriculture, which involves, for example, ploughing, the lack of proper crop rotation and the long-standing use of fertilisers and plant protection products, has led to a severe impoverishment of soils in terms of the quantity and availability of bacteria. However, due to technological progress, it is now possible to introduce into the soil environment specially selected non-pathogenic bacteria whose multiplication takes place in computer-controlled bioreactors, which ensures full control over the production process. This is how REWITAL Pro+ is produced, the application of which enables an improvement in plant development and thus an increase in the maize yield. With its use, a number of probiotic microorganisms are introduced into the soil environment, thanks to which the microbiological balance of soil is restored and biochemical reactions are triggered which have a significant impact on the management of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur by plants.

As a result of intensive root growth, maize forms a very dense root system, especially in its top layer, and thus can relatively easily take up mineral nutrients, including those with lower mobility and thus lower availability, such as phosphorus and potassium. However, the very intensive development of the root system in the initial period of development, already at the stage of 4 leaves, makes this species very sensitive to environmental factors and proper availability of nutrients. In a 3-year study it was shown that the application of REWITAL Pro+ results in even a two-fold increase in the availability of phosphorus, which is present in the soil in large quantities, but usually in forms inaccessible to plants. Phosphorus is a key element especially in the initial period of maize growth. It determines the correct development of the root system and influences the biological activity of the soil. The availability of phosphorus also contributes to a more efficient use of other nutrients. However, phosphorus is only available to plants when it is in the immediate vicinity of the roots, at a distance of not less than 1 mm. In this situation, the application of phosphate fertilisers does not always prove to be efficient and may require localized or even co-ordinated delivery.

A very important element influencing the availability of phosphorus is the microbiological activity of the substrate. In cultivated soils, phosphorus is present in organic form in an amount of 25-50% of the total content of this component, and its availability depends on the rate of biochemical mineralisation. This involves the production of specific enzymes by plant roots and various soil microorganisms that influence this process. The microorganisms that produce phosphorus-releasing enzymes include bacteria from the groups: Bacillus or Pseudomonas which, if we create the right conditions for their development, influence the increase in availability of this element as well as other components. The addition of probiotic bacteria present in REWITAL Pro+ increases the effectiveness of the fertilizers applied and improves the use of soil resources by triggering biochemical reactions in the soil environment which have a significant impact on the transport of macro- and microelements.  In a study conducted at IUNG [Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation National Research Institute] in Puławy in 2013, an increase in dry matter yield of maize grown for silage by 8.5% was obtained as a result of application of REWITAL Pro+ at a dose of 2.0 l/ha (2 x 1.0 l/ha) and successively by 13.5% when REWITAL Pro+l was applied at a dose of 3.0 l/ha (3 x 1.0 l/ha). The same study confirmed a more than 2.5-fold increase in the number of bacteria in the soil after application of this preparation.

To prepare working solution for spraying 1 ha area, dilute 1 l of the preparation in 200-500 l of water. REWITAL Pro+ can be applied in any phase of cultivation, preferably in the period when performing agrotechnical cultivation procedures enables good and uniform mixing of the preparation. It can be applied even 2-3 times during the vegetation period. In particular, it is recommended to apply the treatment before sowing maize. Its application improves air and water conditions, improves soil structure, increases water retention and prevents leaching of nutrients outside the plant root zone. The long persistence of bacterial activity in the soil means that the effect of their application lasts from emergence until even several weeks later.

Revital Pro+ also facilitates the efficient destruction of post-harvest maize residues, which leaves a very large amount of organic matter, which in the situation of limited access to animal fertilizers should be taken into account in balancing the demand for nutrients. After the harvest, an average of 90 kg of nitrogen, 35 kg of phosphorus in the form of P2O5, 170 kg of potassium in the form of K2O and 34 kg of magnesium are left in the post-harvest residues on an area of 1 ha. How effectively and over how long a decomposed straw mineralizes nutrients for the next crop depends on the activity of soil micro-organisms. It is also important to bear in mind that post-harvest residues can be a source of infestation for subsequent crops, such as Fusarium fungi in a pre-crop stand or maize monoculture. The use of REWITAL Pro+ for revitalising the soil environment accelerates the decomposition of residues and reduces the mineralisation of residues to 2-3 months. REWITAL Pro+ restores the soil microbiological balance and improves a number of biochemical reactions affecting the availability and assimilation of nutrients. Mineralization is faster and nutrients previously unavailable to plants in post-harvest residues are released. The process of freeze-drying also intensifies humusification processes, thus improving air-water relations and the tuberous structure of the soil. Thanks to the freeze-drying process, the preparation is distinguished from competing preparations by a long shelf life and relatively high resistance to other plant protection products with which it is fully miscible without negative consequences for its action. As a result of applying the preparation, mineralisation of straw and other post-harvest plant residues is faster and more effective. The faster decomposition of organic remains leads in turn to a reduction in the number of pathogenic organisms in plant residues.

REWITAL Pro+ should be applied at a rate of 1l/ha on stubble, straw and its subsequent mixing with the soil taking into account ploughing, disking/soil cultivation and mulching. In order to increase the mineralisation process, a dose of nitrogen of 5-10kg per pure component can be added to the preparation, which will narrow the carbon/nitrogen ratio and thus reduce the immobilisation of nutrients resulting from the “blocking” of nitrogen used by microorganisms for reproduction.

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